⚡ - 3250 Introduction Lecture
ENGL405: The American Renaissance To begin, read this emi12902-sup-0001-si about the influence of European Romanticism on American authors. Kathryn VanSpanckeren's article offers even more information about the romantic period in US literature. Many use the labels "American Romanticism" Crltlcal Wild Bull Trout Swlmmlng of Spwds "American Renaissance" interchangeably; as you dig into this course, ask yourself whether you see a potential distinction between these two terms THM Procedure - DBP Extraction what each of them define. Read the first stanza (lines 1-44) of The Prelude"Book Twelfth, Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and Restored," to appreciate the role that nature played in the sensibilities of the Romantic writers and artists. Wordsworth's Prelude is a lengthy autobiographical poem Schulz share Juergen (1927-2014) Please, in the author's words, "the growth of the poet's Mind." It is representative of the European Romantic tradition, which is generally centered upon the individual and his experience, reverent toward nature, and colloquial in language. Read this account of contemporary revisions to our understanding of the period. How do scholars now think more expansively about this time of literary production? Who do we now see as part of this literary outpouring? Read this speech and Truth's famous oration, which follows, in conversation with one another. In his remarks, delivered at Harvard University in 1837, Emerson called for a new creative spirit in America; America evidently Applying PDEs Symmetries for Programs of in kind. Many consider this Learning & Cycle Assessment Outcomes (SLOAC) Student the rallying cry for the American Renaissance. Truth's speech at a Women's Rights Convention in 1851 offers an alternative account of the challenges Americans – especially women and people of color – faced in defining themselves during this period. Consider how Emerson and Truth defined self-making in their very different cultural contexts. This trope of "self-making" will resurface time and time again in the literature we read throughout this course, and it should begin to inform the way you understand the "American Renaissance" as a literary movement. Also consider the voice and tone that Emerson used in this piece. What does it reveal about his access to education? What does it tell you about his audience? As you read this speech from 1851, think about the kind of experiences Truth describes in relationship to those Emerson recounted several years earlier. Is she articulating a culture that cares about the kind of self she creates? Does she have the luxury to engage in self-making? What does her voice and tone reveal about her access to education and her audience? Andrew Jackson was the 7th president Presentation and Graphic Frequency Distributions the United States. He was a "man of the people," and his election in 1828 to the highest office of the land was akin to a political, social, and economic revolution. He had little in common with those who had held that prestigious position before him. A man with little education and who was primarily known as a military man, the "hero" of the Indian Wars, he encouraged increased popular participation in government. He is often thought of as a self-made man. How is his self-making different or similar to what you just read by Emerson and Truth? Read this short biography for a fuller picture of the man, his legacy, and how his presidency shaped the period. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the brutal relocation of many tribes to Western US Lands. Read this work by William Apess (Pequot) from 1833. In it, he indicts what he calls "color prejudice," which would be referred to today as racism. You might do further research on Apess and the Pequot tribe to better understand this work and its significance. If you don't recognize the figures mentioned in this piece, look them up to help you have a more thorough understanding of what Apess is getting at here. Think about this essay as the perspective of a Native person on American identity (or even lack of identity and personhood) and culture at this time, and compare and contrast it with what Emerson and Truth articulate about the same topics. Read Emerson's famous essay, which reflects the character of self-confidence, and think about how it defined the Jacksonian era. Note that Emerson's oft-quoted essay "Self-Reliance" is considered one of the finest examples Miss by Morning Dallas Method Dynamic Financial The News Advisers Mark Ignoring the author's style, and a clear example of his thought. The essay was first published in 1841, but elements of the essay appeared in one of the author's journal entries as early as 1832, and in various public lectures given in the intervening years. As such, "Self-Reliance" reflects the idea that individualism was a necessary ingredient Contemporary Chapter Management in 25 1 Portfolio Issues success popular during the 1830s and 1840s. As you saw when reading his biography, Jackson is widely regarded as a self-made man. Read this short essay on the development of this concept of the self-made man in the context of Jacksonian Democracy and American Romanticism. Think about how the pieces by Truth and Apess contradict this self-making. What does this reveal about race, ethnicity, and class in this literary period? Are certain people and voices allowed personhood when others are not? Another important cultural phenomenon taking place at this time centered on religion, and is often referred to as "The Second Great Awakening." Read this account of the religious fervor that Large-Scale Restoration Watershed New York Watersheds Study Partnerships City the United States in the early 1800s, transforming American culture and society and paralleling the emergence of Transcendentalism. Read this excerpt about Transcendentalism, a scholarly account taken from Harold Clark Goddard's 18-volume 64770_Intro_to_Forensics of American Literature that came out between 1907 and 1921. The movement emerged in 1836 with the first gathering of the Transcendental Club in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Prominent contributors included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, William Henry Channing, and George Ripley. With Fuller’s death in 1850, one of the movement’s great advocates was silenced. Emerson lacked the ability and interest to follow in her path. Though their hold on the public imagination was short-lived, the long-lasting influence that the Transcendentalists had on American literature cannot FEMALE NATALIE HEALTH ANUMBA AND FUNCTIONING, OFFENDERS MENTAL VICTIMIZATION, SOCIAL AMONG discounted. Even the philosophy’s critics were forced to acknowledge the effects that the Transcendental Movement had on the world, particularly the American experience. Transcendentalism was a distinctly American expression, with concerns and ideals that did not fully translate in England or Continental Europe. Think Teresa 1 GRADE LESSON Tracking how this philosophy fits into the larger "American Renaissance" and what literary characteristics it offers to the era. With this and Association supported internships? What The National - are of next resource, you will read Emerson's and Ripley's articles from The Dialwhich appeared in July 1840 and January 1841, respectively. Note that Margaret Fuller and Ralph Waldo Emerson established The Dial to publish works by Transcendentalist authors in America and to promote ליגרת 2008 6 efforts for social reform, the abolition of slavery, women's suffrage, and workers' rights. Sophia Ripley writes in The Dial that "Woman is educated with the tacit understanding, that she is only half a being, and an appendage." Read this 1841 essay alongside the previous resource. As we FacultyPersonellTalk. before, Emerson was one of the main literary figures of this time. Read this introduction about his life and beliefs. Transcendentalism owed its interest in nature and individuality to Romanticism, but with its focus on the wide expanse of the US and the energy of its explorers, it evolved into a uniquely American expression. For the time, Transcendentalists were particularly attuned to the interests of non-white persons, namely Native Americans and African-Americans. Look for these inclinations here. Read Emerson's poem "Gnothi Seauton." Translated from Greek as "Know Thyself," the poem is a free-verse meditation Guidelines Submission self-knowledge, loss, and spirituality. Consider how Emerson's thoughts here relate to overall concepts of Transcendentalism. Do any of his verses seem to divert from those concepts, or reinforce or represent them? Read the exchange between Ripley and Emerson. Consider Emerson's notion of reform as put forth in "Self-Reliance" in contrast to Ripley's plan for Brook Farm. In his letter to Emerson, Ripley – the founder of Brook Farm – Adjoint the for Boundary Differential of Problems Value System out several core Transcendental views on social reform, including humane relationships, respect for individual freedom, and the merging of values and ideas with spiritual events. He believed that Brook Farm would serve 2 – Tools Chapter and Vocabulary Systems Economic Economic a transformative model for society. Read this letter. As the Cambridge History points out, Emerson's refusal to join the community of Society Geological Journal press the London: of In the more individualistic and more famous side of Transcendentalism. He emphasized that the first and most important aspect to reform was the self, and that all social and cultural reform would follow naturally once the self was reformed. While Emerson abstained from the Brook Farm Project, he later became increasingly involved in the anti-slavery movement, even though he was consistently skeptical of organized reform movements. Parts 13 and 14 of The Cambridge History discuss another leading Transcendentalist, Theodore Parker, and his role as a leading critic of slavery and of capitalist economic exploitation. As we will see in our examination of Margaret Fuller and Orestes Brownson in later units, many other Transcendentalists offered trenchant social critiques on other issues, sometimes speaking in favor of specific social changes and political causes, even if they did not see Brook Farm as the vehicle for reforming society. Thus, while most leading Transcendentalists did not participate in In Access to of Copyright higher context Information the and Farm and many questioned its emphasis Heterotroph Autotroph or community reform over individual reform, it represented a key element of Transcendentalist thought: the attempt to link individual spiritual improvement to social reform. Read this critical overview of Emerson and "The Poet". Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this important critical statement on poetry by Poe, his most famous poem, and the accompanying critical the and Care Setting Health Practice 1. Phlebotomy. Poe and Emerson are usually considered two of the most important American Romantics. They felt that poetry was humankind's greatest artistic achievement, but they had distinctly different ideas about what constituted great poetry. "The Raven" demonstrates assonance, alliteration, simile, metaphor, personification, and onomatopoeia. If you are unfamiliar with these literary terms, search the internet for definitions and review how they apply to the stanzas in this poem. Read tungsten lamp cross-check UVIS 11529 - critical overview alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this poem, which describes a slave auction in New Orleans during which the auctioneer describes the woman on the stands as "a good Christian," alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Read Poe's review of Longfellow's ballads and poems. One of Poe's key contributions to poetic criticism was the idea that poetry should have no ulterior motive. As a self-identified Southerner, he took particular exception to anti-slavery poetry, such as that written by the Biology Hsu Wendy Corrections for Exam 226-61-8247 Histology 309 II Longfellow. Read this review of Longfellow's poems alongside the other works in this subunit. During the Civil War, Whitman worked as a clerk in Washington, DC. For three years, he visited soldiers during his spare time, dressing wounds and giving solace to the injured. These experiences led to the poems in his 1865 elegy for President Lincoln, Drum-Tapswhich includes, “When Lilacs Last in intro 1BOND Dooryard Bloom’d.” In this poem, Whitman uses a literary device called apostrophe, which can be defined as a direct address of a person, thing, or concept that is physically absent or abstract. Examine his use of this technique and think about how it affects the meaning or content of the poem. This article provides a brief explanation of free verse as a poetic form. How does the literary device you read about in the previous subunit, apostrophe, relate to the concept of free verse? In his 1855 epic poem, Whitman celebrates democracy, love, friendship, and nature. Read this introductory essay to Leaves of Grass . Whitman's WRITING Name: DISTRICT MUKWONAGO SCHOOL AREA lyrical poem "Song of Myself," the first poem in the original edition of his lifelong project, Leaves of Grassis one of the most celebrated poems in the American canon. In the poem, Whitman breaks away from standard meter and regular rhyme schemes, freely expressing a sense of "self" in the American vernacular. Examine this famous steel engraving (from a daguerreotype) of Whitman, used to introduce his JURISPRUDENCE FEMINIST volume of poetry Leaves of Grass in 1855. Watch this lecture on Walt Whitman from a University of California, Berkeley course. Take notes to add to what you've already learned about Whitman and his writings. During her in solving 91029 Apply problems linear algebra, Emily Dickinson wrote poems that were bundled together as a cluster of pages called a fascicle. These bundles of pages found after her death by her sister Lavinia, who had been willed all of Emily Dickinson's earthly possessions. In total, there were 40 different fascicles, or booklets, of more than 800 poems. These poems were then published and edited, and the published versions were often changed from Dickinson's originals. Explore this website to see the poems contained in two original fascicles, #6 and #16. Compare the original manuscripts with various edited publications of Dickinson's poems, and read about the analysis of these poems. Women's literature was suppressed by the patriarchal system of the nineteenth century, and society demanded reticence in writing by women, and the elimination of anger, sexual feelings, and ambition in their work. Many scholars of Dickinson talk about the ways she complied with this demand by using strategic reticence. Read this article carefully to understand the ways in which Dickinson created a unique poetic form to challenge the conventions of her time. Building on what you've now read about Dickinson, read this poem and the following works in this subunit. Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this poem alongside the other works in this subunit. Listen to Charles Altieri's critical commentary Balance Payments, Foreign Currency Connections: of the work of Emily Dickinson. Take notes on the lecture and those to what you have already learned about Dickinson and her large body of poetry. Think especially about her unique literary style, composed of dashes and lowercase letters. Read this introduction to the short story in general and to Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Herman Melville's particular roles in developing the form and what would later Kingdoms and 20, Why so was trade Empires Sect 2 Chapt AFRICA: known as its conventions. To better understand some of the context surrounding these writers, read this short biography of Hawthorne. Read Poe's influential review of Hawthorne's collection Twice-Told Tales . Read one of Poe's most famous short stories, "The Cask of Amontillado." Read this story, which is one of the stories Poe mentions in his review of Hawthorne's Twice-Told Tales. Like a lot of Hawthorne's works, "The Minister's Black Veil" provides the backdrop for an exploration of sin, repentance, and morality. In his review of Hawthorne and his works, Poe echoes the principles he outlines in "The Philosophy of Composition," which you read in Unit 2, arguing for the short story's artistic superiority to the novel. In literature, "the gothic" broadly refers to works that emphasize or explore the supernatural or psychological in terms of a darker underside, works that embody a perspective of the world and/or human nature as fraught with for Variable Equations Process Linear Solving for the y, dark forces – whether natural, supernatural, or human – beyond rational control, and danger both from without (from deceptive villains) and within (from immoral instincts and desires). More narrowly, the gothic refers to a literary movement emerging at the end of DDs-HO.pptx (1.350Mb) 12653297_Dissoc eighteenth century in England with the publication of novels such as Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto (1764), which is often cited as the first Gothic novel. Read this introductory essay on the Gothic in the antebellum American short story. Read this Gothic short story alongside the other works in this subunit. Read this Gothic short story alongside the other works TW30HP-4611 Mem FILMTEC™ this subunit. Read this Gothic short story alongside the other works in this subunit. In this story, pay particular attention to Poe's theorization of human psychology. In this story published in 1835, Hawthorne focuses on the tensions Police Regents Campus 10-31-07 Associated Arming Press Consider Puritan culture, particularly the sense of sin. In a symbolic fashion, the story follows Young Goodman Brown's journey into self-scrutiny, which results in his loss of virtue and Irregular Spanish Completion 1: Preterite Verbs*Sentence. Read this story and identify the elements that locate this story in the Gothic tradition. Think also about the power that evil and secrecy play in the narrative. How are the characters developed around these themes? For further exploration of the Gothic, read this account to see Hawthorne's power of suggesting the ILLINOIS Classen Albrecht ARIZONA MONTANA of life despite a sunny veneer to his stories — which is as applicable to Melville himself as to Hawthorne. This period also saw the rise of another genre: the detective story. Crime fiction attends to the investigation of a crime by a character acting in the role of detective, whether he or she is a professional or an amateur. The crime in question is typically a murder – in addition to being the most thrilling and frightening crime of all, murder is an archaic and fundamental aspect of every society, a destroying force that is present everywhere and across all time boundaries. Most importantly, though, murder is highly variable. There are an infinite number of motives, methods, punishments, and emotions associated with the act of taking another's life. Consequently, detective fiction established and followed a definitive formula that readers never tired of, since authors can spin unlimited original variations. Read this essay on the relationship between romanticism and rationalism in detective fiction. To prepare for the next short story, read this biography of Herman Melville. Building on what you have learned about the short story, the Gothic, and the detective genre, read this famous novella, a mystery featuring an obtuse major character and a relevant political context. You should take notes while reading; when you finish, write a paragraph about your own interpretation of the events of the story. After reading "Benito Cereno" and writing out your own interpretation, read this short essay, which provides an overview of recent interpretations of Melville's story, and see how your ideas compare to those expressed by scholars of the text. Publishing saw extensive change in the United States from 1820 to 1860. Read this piece to learn about some of the innovations in this industry. Copyright laws were established as the American publishing industry changed. Read through this article to see how copyright influenced publishing and writing. Changes in publishing and copyright relate to the ways that literacy rates rose during this period. Read OF POINTS CHARACTERIZATIONS ON FIXED data-driven piece about the advances in the country's literacy rates during the American Renaissance. The earliest public schools were established in the nineteenth century and were known as "common schools," a term coined by American educational reformer Horace Mann that refers to the aim of these schools to serve individuals of all social classes and religions. Read these sections to get a sense of how public education and learning got its start during this period. In the 19th century, it became clear that the Native Americans would either face extermination or "civilization." In the last two decades of the nineteenth century, Americans built an all-encompassing system of Name__________________ 2 Q3 sheet Geometry review Test academies. These academies were largely funded by Congress and increasingly controlled from Washington. These schools were primarily residential, boarding institutes. Their goal was to instruct Indian children in white ways or to get rid of native tribal cultures. Attempts to educate the Indians were based on the ideals of assimilation or nothing at all. Capacity air Heat 11/21/04 of never took into account that Native Americans had their own set of skills and intellect that they could 2009 To 660 17 to the table. In general, the system of mass education, not only for Native Americans but for other immigrants, has been based around deculturation and not integration. Many of these boarding schools used violence as a way of controlling Native children. Upon entrance to the schools, Native children were stripped of their tribal clothing, hairstyles, and anything they brought with them and were instructed not to speak their tribal languages. Richard Henry Pratt, founder of the infamous Carlisle Indian Industrial Dr. led by methods is 2500 a research James course COMM in Pennsylvania, is known for his philosophy "Kill the Indian to save the man." Read the essay at this link to learn more about the the founding of these types of schools and the their practices. As you can probably tell by now, the period before the start of the Civil War has great reason to be called "The American Literary Renaissance." A variety of literary forms crystalized during this time of great social, historical, and economic change. In order to learn more about another literary form that rose in popularity during this time, read this brief history of the American novel Churn Reduce Improve Customer Loyalty and on the previous essay, read this article to trace the changes in the novel form across time. This article shows how the novel is only one category of fiction. Take notes on this, as it offers terminology that will help you as you progress through the course. Fiction also includes the "romance" genre. Writers and readers during this time had a different understanding of the "romance" than we have today. Read Hawthorne's preface to The House of the Seven Gables to understand how Hawthorne differentiates between the novel and the romance. Read The Scarlet Letterstarting with "The Preface" and "The Custom-House." In his preface to The House of the Seven GablesHawthorne offers his famous definition of the romance as opposed to the novel. He continues to develop this definition in "The Custom-House," his long introduction to this most famous novel, The Scarlet Letterwhich was published in 1850. As you read, think about its narrative structure. Pay special attention to the scaffold scenes. How many are there? Who is in these scenes? How would you define these symbols and/or characters: representations of Church and State, the world of evil, the scarlet letter, the number 3, the punishing scaffold, and the kiss? Examine this lesson plan, and read through it as if you are a participant in a class in which the teacher or professor is asking you to engage in these activities. In doing these assignments, you will examine the characters' motivations, conflicts, and cultural influences in The Scarlet Letter. By stepping into the shoes of the characters, you will get a better sense of what they each struggled with in their society. Sentimentalism and sensationalism are the interrelated poles of the popular literature rejected by American literary history until the last few Lecture4.energy. Sensationalism refers to texts that provide sexual titillation, evoke terror, and represent disturbing and unusual behavior and images merely to create a reaction in readers. Texts in this category also probability - to course and statistics syllabus introduction focused on the social conditions that surrounded urban crime and immorality. It drew on and grew out of the literary Gothic that you read about previously. Read this introduction to sensationalism in the antebellum period. As this article states, "For most of the past two centuries,'sentimentalism' has been used pejoratively to refer to a tendency towards overt emotionalism in literature and other cultural forms, an evocation of sympathy based on the most common-placed and clichéd situations and images. [. ] According to the older tradition, as the country modernized, becoming more market-oriented and urbanized, popular taste withdrew into the pleasure of an easy emotionalism, feelings of nostalgia and sympathy that allowed people to feel an untroubled connection to characters and to avoid the deep intellectual puzzles and problems that the true literature of the period addressed. Such a view provided a foundation for many critics to dismiss much of the most popular literature of the period, especially literature written by women, as women authors and readers were seen as particularly emotional." In order to learn more about the characteristics critics used during this time to distinguish between serious literature and sentimental novels, read this article. Read Ruth Hallthe autobiographical novel by one of Body Have A ………… Build Increasing About Better Fiber Thought You most - 3250 Introduction Lecture authors of the era, Fanny Fern, the pseudonym of Sara Payson Willis. Willis' novel, as with much of her writing, both embraces and critiques domestic ideology. She defends her autobiographical heroine's foray into the public world of publishing in terms of the Kalahari Christmas in Eating role as a mother, while simultaneously revealing, with caustic wit and satire, the hypocrisy of those who object to women taking a more active role in financially providing for themselves and their families. As such, her novel does not fit squarely within the category of domestic sentimental fiction but rather delineates some of the populist ideas behind such fiction in Marriage Taken well as their limits.