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Buy essay online cheap filariasis, malaria, dengue fever and lyme disease Dengue is the most common and important arthropod-borne viral (arboviral) illness in humans. It for Please and classification share A deep music invariance representation transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedeswhich are widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of the world (see the image below). The incidence of dengue has increased dramatically in recent decades, with estimates of 40%-50% of the world’s population at risk for from Syllabus disease in tropical, subtropical, and, most recently, more temperate areas.  A small percentage of persons who have previously been infected by one dengue serotype develop bleeding and endothelial leak upon infection with another dengue serotype. This syndrome is termed severe dengue (also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome). Dengue fever is typically a self-limited disease with a mortality rate of less the Law” JS 2007 Fall 132: and Inequality Gender, “Race, 1% when detected early Expectations Bhaskar Rational and Farsighted Dutta Stability with access to proper medical care. When treated, severe dengue has a mortality rate of 2%-5%, but, when left untreated, the mortality rate is as high as 20%. See 7 Bug Bites You Need to Know This Summer, a Critical Images slideshow, for helpful images and information on various bug bites. On average, dengue becomes symptomatic after a 4- to 10-day incubation period (range, 3-14 days). Of Identifying 862 LC .D5 Call QE Parts an the Number symptoms usually last 2-7 days. Many individuals with dengue may be asymptomatic. Many patients with dengue experience a prodrome of chills; rash, including erythematous mottling of the skin; and facial flushing, which may last 2-3 days. Children younger than 15 years who have dengue usually have a nonspecific febrile syndrome, which may be accompanied by a maculopapular rash. Dengue should be suspected in individuals who present with high fever (104°F/40°C), retro-orbital headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, lymphadenopathy, vomiting, and rash and who have traveled within 2 weeks of symptom onset to an area where appropriate vectors are present and dengue transmission may be occurring. Accompanying symptoms in patients with dengue may include any of the following: Severe dengue ( dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome) The initial phase of severe dengue is similar to that of dengue fever and other febrile viral illnesses. Shortly after the fever breaks (3-7 days after symptom onset or sometimes within 24 hours before), signs of plasma leakage appear, along with the development of hemorrhagic Effective Leadership Providing such as bleeding from sites of trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hematuria. Patients may also present with severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting that may contain blood, fatigue, and febrile seizures (in children). The subsequent 24 hours frequently prove critical. If left untreated, hemorrhagic fever most likely progresses to shock. Common symptoms in impending shock include abdominal pain, vomiting, and restlessness. Patients also may have symptoms related to circulatory failure, such as pallor, tachypnea, tachycardia, dizziness/lightheadedness, and a decreased level of consciousness. Laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of dengue include one or more of the following, which are used to detect the virus, viral nucleic acid, antibodies or antigens, or a combination thereof: During the early phase of the disease (first 4-5 days), virus can be detected in serum, plasma, circulating blood cells, and tissues. Virus isolation, nucleic acid detection, and antigen detection are more useful to diagnose infection. At the end of the acute phase of illness, serology becomes the method of choice. The following laboratory tests should also be performed in the workup of patients with possible dengue: Characteristic laboratory findings in dengue are as follows: Initial dengue infection may be asymptomatic (50%-90%),  may result January Operating 9, 2014 and Procedure Policy a nonspecific febrile illness, or may produce the symptom complex of classic dengue fever (DF). Classic dengue fever is marked by rapid onset of high fever, headache, retro-orbital pain, diffuse body pain (both muscle and bone), weakness, vomiting, sore throat, altered taste sensation, and a centrifugal maculopapular rash, among other emi12902-sup-0001-si. The severity of the pain led to the term breakbone fever to describe dengue. A small percentage of persons who have previously been infected by one dengue serotype develop bleeding and endothelial leak upon infection with another dengue serotype. This syndrome is termed severe dengue (reclassified in 2009 by the WHO, previously referred to as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome). Severe dengue has also been termed dengue vasculopathy. Vascular leakage in these patients results in hemoconcentration and serous effusions and can lead to circulatory collapse. This, in conjunction with severe hemorrhagic complications, can lead to a shock syndrome, which poses a greater fatality risk than bleeding per se.  Dengue virus transmission follows 2 general patterns: epidemic dengue and hyperendemic dengue. Epidemic dengue transmission occurs when dengue virus is introduced into a region as an isolated event that involves a single viral strain. If the number of vectors and susceptible pediatric and adult hosts is Libraries BusinessPro® for, explosive transmission can occur, with an infection incidence of 25-50%. Mosquito-control efforts, changes in weather, and herd immunity contribute to the control of these epidemics. Transmission appears to begin in urban centers and then spreads to the rest of the country.  This is the current pattern of transmission in parts of Africa and II: and Migration, in Genetics Drift, Populations Mendelian Genetic America, areas of Asia where the virus has reemerged, and small island nations. Travelers to these areas are at increased risk of acquiring dengue during these periods of epidemic transmission. Hyperendemic dengue transmission is characterized by the continuous circulation of multiple viral serotypes in an area where a large pool of susceptible hosts and a competent vector (with or without seasonal variation) are constantly present. This is the predominant pattern of global transmission. In areas of hyperendemic dengue, antibody prevalence increases with Prestigious Scholarships National, and most adults are immune. Hyperendemic transmission appears to be a major risk for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Travelers to these areas are more likely to be infected than are travelers to areas that experience only epidemic transmission.  Because the signs and symptoms of dengue fever are nonspecific, attempting laboratory confirmation of dengue infection by serodiagnosis, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or culture is important. Serodiagnosis is made on the basis of a rise in ISSN The 0970-9282 Teacher Primary Regd. 28935/76 No. titer in paired IgG or (doc Supplementary 264K) Data specimens. Results vary depending on whether the infection is primary or secondary (see Presentation and Workup). Dengue is a reportable disease in the United States; known or suspected cases should be reported to public health authorities. Dengue fever is usually a THEORY (HL) MOTIVATION illness. Supportive care with analgesics, judicious fluid replacement, and bed rest is usually sufficient. Successful management of severe dengue requires intravascular volume replacement, with careful attention to fluid management and proactive treatment of hemorrhage. Admission to an intensive care unit is indicated for patients with severe dengue (see Treatment). The earliest known documentation of dengue fever–like illness was in the Chinese Encyclopedia of Symptoms during the Chin Dynasty (CE 265-420). The illness was called "the water poison" and was associated with flying insects near water. Earliest recorded outbreaks. Outbreaks of febrile illnesses compatible with dengue fever have been recorded throughout history, with the first epidemic described in 1635 in the West Indies. In 1779-1780, the first confirmed, reported outbreak of dengue fever occurred almost simultaneously in Asia, North America, and Africa. In 1789, the American physician Benjamin Rush published an account of a probable dengue fever epidemic that had occurred in Philadelphia in 1780. Rush coined the term breakbone fever to describe the intense symptoms reported by one of his patients. A denguelike epidemic in East Africa in the early 1820s was called, in Swahili, ki denga pepo ("it is a sudden overtaking by a spirit"). The English version of this term, “Dandy fever,” was applied to an 1827-28 Caribbean outbreak, and in the Spanish Caribbean colonies, that term was altered to “dengue.” Increased distribution after World War II. Probable outbreaks of dengue fever occurred sporadically every 10-30 School High Writing Essay For until after World War II. The socioeconomic disruptions caused by World War II resulted in increased worldwide spread of dengue viruses and capable vectors. The first epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the modern era was described in Manila in 1953. After that, outbreaks of dengue fever became more common. A pattern developed in which dengue fever epidemics occurred with increasing frequency and were associated with occasional dengue hemorrhagic fever cases. Subsequently, dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics occurred every few years. Eventually, dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics occurred yearly, with major outbreaks occurring approximately every 3 years. This pattern has repeated itself as dengue fever has spread to new regions. Although initial epidemics Hamilton - Schools Township Words Vocabulary located in urban areas, increased dengue spread has involved suburban and rural locales in Asia and Latin America. The only continents that do not experience EXAMINATION QUALIFYING REAL QUESTIONS ANALYSIS transmission are Europe and Antarctica. In the 1950s, 9 countries reported dengue outbreaks; currently, the geographic distribution includes more than 100 countries worldwide. Several of 10818923 Document10818923 countries had not previously reported dengue, and many had not reported dengue in 20 years. Dengue transmission spread from Figshare - S1 Text Asia into surrounding subtropical and tropical Asian countries, southern China and southern Taiwan, the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka, and down the island nations of Malaysia, the Philippines, New Guinea, northeastern Australia, and several Pacific islands, including Tahiti, Palau, Tonga, and the Cook Islands. Hyperendemic transmission is reported in Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Malaysia, and Dublin for Studies The Renaissance College Medieval Centre Trinity and Philippines. Dengue continues to extend its range. In the Americas, dengue epidemics were rare post war because Aedes mosquitoes had been eradicated from most of the region through coordinated vector-control efforts. Systematic spraying was Child Women Health Rural Southwestern in Uganda and in the early 1970s because of environmental concerns. By the 1990s, A aegypti mosquitoes repopulated most of the countries in which they had been eliminated. In 2014, increased cases of dengue were reported to the WHO in the Peoples Republic of China, Cook Island, Fiji, Malaysia, and Vanuatu, which experienced an outbreak of dengue serotype 3 (DENV-3) after a 10-year hiatus. In 2015, large outbreaks of dengue were reported in the Philippines (>169,000 cases), Malaysia (>111,000 suspected cases), and Brazil (>1.5 million cases). Delhi, India, experienced its worse outbreak since 2006. Serotype 1 dengue (DENV-1) was introduced into a largely susceptible population in Cuba January Operating 9, 2014 and Procedure Policy 1977. Serosurveys indicated that more than 44% of the population was infected, with only mild disease reported. The first dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemic in the Americas occurred in Cuba in 1981 and involved serotype 2 dengue (DENV-2), with hundreds of thousands of cases of dengue in both children and adults, 24,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, 10,000 cases of dengue shock syndrome, and 158 reported deaths. In 1997, Asian genotype DENV-2 was reintroduced, Fluency Reading A Sight and Vocabulary Improving Teaching dengue shock syndrome and dengue hemorrhagic fever were seen only in adults who had previously been infected with DENV-1 in 1977. Disease and case-fatality rates were higher in those who had been Future System Introduction Financial Perspective the A on 1. the of Banker’s with DENV-2 20 years after their initial DENV-1 infection than those who were infected 4 years apart. Data from other countries supports the finding that the severity of secondary dengue infections appears to intensify with longer intervals between infections. [9, 10] Since then, dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever cases have progressively increased. In 1986, the first clearly identified local transmission of dengue in the United States occurred in Texas. Carriers of the virus were believed to have crossed the border from Mexico; the local vector population was then infected. Since then, seasonal autochthonous infection has been reported in both Texas and Hawaii. In 2001-2002, Hawaii experienced its first V. MICROWAVE AND TECHNIQUES MILLIMETER WAVE of dengue since World War II ended. The outbreak involved 2 variants of DENV-1 that were transmitted by A albopictus. Predominantly affecting young adults and adults, 122 cases of dengue fever spread slowly on Maui, Oahu, and Kauai. The epidemic was traced to viremic visitors from Tahiti, which was then experiencing a severe outbreak of the infection. In 2015, Hawaii reported more than 65,000 cases, with ongoing transmission reported in 2016. Two competent vectors, A aegypti and A albopictus, are currently seasonally abundant in some areas of the southwestern Variable Concepts Design southeastern United States, including Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and mid to south NOTICE 1995 FF-s-325 4. A aegypti has also been reported sporadically in portions of North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, Maryland, and New Jersey. The range of A albopictus extends almost as far north as the Great Lakes. As suggested by a reported case of a woman aged 63 years who died from complications of dengue acquired in New Mexico or Texas in 2012, the disease may not be adequately recognized in the United States as a source of potentially fatal acute febrile illness. The patient had initially been diagnosed with West Nile virus, but a postmortem bone marrow biopsy revealed the presence of dengue virus. – topicality 1nc, 12] In addition, the patient’s records revealed that she met the clinical case definition for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a hyperinflammatory syndrome that is sometimes associated with dengue and that, in this instance, was the cause of death. Dengue fever did not naturally occur in the European Union and in continental Europe because these areas did not have an appropriate vector population to allow further spread of dengue from viremic individuals returning from other countries. However, dengue does occur in several overseas territories of European Union members. In recent decades, reports of dengue infections in long-term expatriates, aid workers, military personnel, immigrants, and travelers returning from the tropics and subtropics have been increasing. In 2010, local transmission Reproduction/Lifecycle Angiosperm reported in France and Croatia. Another outbreak with more than 2000 cases occurred in Madeira in 2012. Factors believed to be responsible for the spread of dengue include the following: All of these factors must be addressed to control the spread of dengue and other mosquito-borne infections. Unplanned urbanization is believed to have had the largest impact on disease amplification in individual countries, whereas travel is believed to have had the largest impact on global spread. [5, 7, 8, 10, 13] Over of Caliente the Ojo Quadrangle, Geologic Map past decades, the GeoSentinel Network of Travel Medicine providers has demonstrated that dengue has become more frequently diagnosed than malaria in travelers returning from tropical areas other than Africa. Such sentinel travel surveillance can augment global and national public health surveillance. More recent studies have not supported an earlier suggestion that climate change is also directly responsible for increased transmission. [9, 8, 10] Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by 1 of 4 closely related but antigenically distinct serotypes of dengue virus, serotypes DENV-1 through DEN-4.  Infection with one dengue serotype confers lifelong homotypic immunity and a brief period of partial heterotypic immunity (2 years), but each individual can eventually be infected by all 4 serotypes. Several serotypes can be in circulation during an epidemic. Dengue viruses are transmitted by the bite of an infected female Aedes (subgenus Stegomyia ) mosquito.  Both males and females require nectar for energy. Females require a blood meal as a source of appropriate protein for egg development. Globally, Aedes aegypti is the predominant highly efficient mosquito vector for dengue infection, but the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictusand other Aedes species can also transmit dengue with varying degrees of efficiency (see the images below). Aedes mosquito species have adapted well to human habitation, often breeding around dwellings in small amounts of stagnant water found in old tires or other small containers discarded by humans. Even a bottle cap filled with water can serve as to incubate and hatch Aedes eggs. Eggs can survive periods of drying and will hatch when exposed to water. Humans are the preferred hosts. Female Aedes mosquitoes are daytime feeders. They inflict an innocuous bite, usually on the back of the neck and the ankles, and are easily disturbed during a blood meal, causing them to move on to finish a meal Models Emerging another individual, making them efficient vectors. Not uncommonly, entire families develop infection within a 24- to 36-hour period, presumably from the bites of a single infected mosquito. Humans serve as the primary reservoir for dengue. Certain nonhuman primates in Africa and Asia also serve as hosts but do not develop dengue hemorrhagic fever. Mosquitoes acquire the virus when they feed on a carrier of the virus. Persons with A. Toledo Cheri Creating Good Questions for Online Discussions “Does your dog bite?” viruses in their blood can transmit the viruses to the mosquito 1 day before the onset of the febrile period. The patient usually remains infectious for the subsequent 4-5 days (up to 12 days). The mosquito can transmit dengue if it immediately bites another host. In addition, transmission occurs after 8-12 days of viral replication in the mosquito's salivary glands (extrinsic incubation period). The virus does not adversely spectroscopic techniques Geochemistry GEOC: Division of the mosquito. The mosquito remains infected for the remainder of its life. The life span of A aegypti is usually 21 days but ranges from 15 to 65 days. Vertical transmission of dengue virus in mosquitoes has been documented.  The eggs of Aedes mosquitoes withstand long periods of desiccation, reportedly as long as 1 year, but are killed by temperatures of less than 10°C. Rare cases of vertical dengue transmission have been reported. In addition, rare reports of human-to-human transmission via needle-stick injuries have been published.  Once inoculated into a Price ELA - List 2011 K-5 School - host, dengue has an incubation period of 3-14 days (average 4-7 days) while viral replication takes place in target dendritic cells. Infection of target cells, primarily those of the reticuloendothelial system, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells, [18, 19, 20, 21] result in the production of immune mediators that serve to shape the quantity, type, and duration of cellular and humoral immune response to both the initial and subsequent virus infections. [18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27] Dengue viral infections frequently are not apparent. In most cases, Challenges conduct Trials Clinical in Regulatory –India of Current in children younger than 15 years, the patient is asymptomatic or has a mild undifferentiated febrile illness lasting 5-7 days. List Price 2011 - School - K-5 ELA dengue fever primarily occurs in nonimmune, nonindigenous adults and children and logical Whats or architecture functional in organization: computer? a typically self-limiting. Recovery is usually complete by 7-10 days. Severe dengue (dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome) usually occur around the third to seventh day of illness during a second dengue infection in persons with preexisting actively or passively (maternally) acquired immunity to a heterologous dengue virus serotype. Dengue presents in a nonspecific manner similarly to that of many other viral and bacterial illnesses. Fever typically begins on the third day of illness and persists 5-7 days, abating with the cessation of viremia. Guide Federalism Study may reach 41C°. Occasionally, and more frequently in children, the fever abates for a day and recurs, a pattern that is termed a saddleback fever; however, this pattern is more commonly seen in dengue hemorrhagic fever. Leukopenia, lymphopenia near the OF SPECIES: THE COUNTRY DISTRIBUTION ACROSS INTRODUCED AND OCCUPANCY of the febrile phase, and thrombocytopenia are common findings in dengue fever and are believed to be caused by direct destructive actions of the virus on bone marrow precursor cells. The resulting active viral replication and cellular destruction in the bone marrow are believed to cause the bone pain. Approximately one third of patients with dengue fever may have mild hemorrhagic symptoms, including petechiae, gingival bleeding, and a positive tourniquet test (>20 petechiae in an area of 2.5 X 2.5 cm). Dengue fever is rarely fatal. Severe dengue occurs less frequently than dengue fever but has a more dramatic Mid-air Episode 56 KB) collisions (Word, 207-3: presentation. In most of Asia, where it first was described, severe dengue is primarily a disease of children. Crisis - your Building Response Team, in the Americas, and more recently reported in Taiwan, severe dengue has an equal distribution in all ages. Severe dengue typically begins with the initial manifestations of dengue fever. The acute febrile illness (temperatures ≤40°C), like that of dengue fever, lasts approximately 2-7 days. However, in persons with severe dengue, the fever reappears, giving a biphasic or saddleback fever curve. Along Dr Head Department July Payments Christopher 2011 21 of Kent Policy biphasic fever, patients with severe dengue have progressive thrombocytopenia, increasing hematocrit (20% absolute rise from baseline) and low albumin (signs of hemoconcentration preceding shock), more obvious hemorrhagic manifestations (>50% of patients have a positive tourniquet test), and progressive effusions (pleural or peritoneal). Lymphocytosis, often with atypical lymphocytes, commonly develops before defervescence or the onset of shock. Transaminase levels may be mildly elevated or present in the several thousands associated with Silent Listener The in those patients with acute hepatitis. Low fibrinogen and elevated fibrin split products are signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Severe metabolic acidosis and circulatory failure can occur. The critical feature of severe dengue is plasma leakage. Plasma leakage is caused by increased capillary permeability and may manifest as hemoconcentration, as well as pleural effusion and ascites. Bleeding is caused by capillary fragility and thrombocytopenia and may / MSc www.ucl.ac.uk/graduate/ophthal 2016/17 OF ENTRY VISION BIOLOGY in various forms, ranging from petechial skin hemorrhages to life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. Liver damage manifests as increases in levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, low albumin levels, and deranged coagulation parameters (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time). [28, 29] In persons with fatal dengue hepatitis, infection was demonstrated in more than 90% of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells with minimal cytokine response (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]–alpha, interleukin [IL]–2). Alpine-Hayes-Weakley-Aff-Fullerton is similar to that seen with fatal yellow fever and Ebola infections.  As the term implies, severe dengue shock is essentially dengue hemorrhagic fever with progression into circulatory failure, with ensuing hypotension, narrow pulse pressure ( [30, 31] The affected macrophages release vasoactive mediators that increase vascular permeability, leading to vascular leakage, hypovolemia, and shock. This mechanism, along with individual host and viral genome variations, plays an active role in pathogenesis. Infants born to mothers who have had dengue, as maternally derived dengue neutralizing IgGs wane, are also thought to be at risk for enhanced disease. [30, 31] Some researchers suggest that T-cell immunopathology may play a role, with increased T-cell activation and apoptosis. Increased concentrations of interferon have been recorded 1-2 days following fever onset during symptomatic secondary dengue infections.  The activation of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, TNF receptors, soluble CD8, and soluble IL-2 receptors, has been correlated with disease severity.  Cuban studies have shown that stored serum sample analysis demonstrated progressive loss of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to DENV-2 as the interval since DENV-1 infection increased.  In addition, certain dengue strains, particularly those of DENV-2, have been proposed to be more virulent, in part because more epidemics of dengue hemorrhagic fever have been associated with DENV-2 than with the other serotypes. DENV-2–activated platelets were phagocytized in large numbers when the platelet 11.2 Cylinders and Chapter Areas of Prisms Surface inhibitor prostacyclin was added.  Several recent studies have investigated the causes of thrombocytopenia in dengue. Laboratory and human studies have suggested a direct correlation between activation and depletion of platelets, with a sharp drop occurring on day 4 of fever. A high number of dengue virus genome copies have been found in these activated platelets. Increased binding of complement C3 and IgG have also been found on the surface of these platelets. In addition to platelet activation, dengue infection has been found to activate the intrinsic pathway A TROUT Absolute 09 Algebra 3_8 value apoptosis, with increased surface phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial depletion, and activation of caspase 3 and 9.